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Electronic signature laws by state
Electronic Signatures

Electronic Signature Laws by State in the U.S.

Will Cannon

Last updated on February 19, 2024

Electronic signatures allow for simpler, quicker, and even more secure document signing. Businesses and consumers alike now have the flexibility to do business in ways that are easiest for them. Federal law in the United States has even recognized the importance of online signatures; the government passed legislation to make them legally binding. With two digital signature acts (ESIGN and UETA) currently in place, here’s what you need to know about electronic signature laws by state in the U.S.


ESIGN and UETA are legal acts protecting digital signatures as legally binding and valid. Let’s take a look at the history of ESIGN and UETA.

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (ESIGN Act)

ESIGN (U.S. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce) was established in 2000. This piece of legislation made electronic signatures legal in every U.S. state and territory where federal law applies. It puts digital signatures on the same level as handwritten signatures regarding legality, which is a major win for businesses and consumers who would otherwise be burdened with the task of physically signing documents. 

Under this act, an electronic signature is simply a specific mark or identifier associated with a document or other record and executed by someone with an explicit intent to sign the said record.

Legal Protection

The ESIGN act validates digital signatures and creates additional legal protections. Any signature requirement under the law can be satisfied with an electronic signature in states and territories where ESIGN applies. Additionally, electronic signatures may be presented in court as evidence and would hold up in a court of law as valid.

However, some components must be present for an electronic signature to realize full legal protection under ESIGN. There needs to be a clear intent to sign the document, expressed consent to conduct business electronically, a clear option to opt out of doing business electronically, and distribution and retention of the digital documents. Both the customer and the business should receive a copy of the digital signature for their records.

Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) 

The UETA (Uniform Electronic Transactions Act) is in effect in some states and territories. This law also holds that digital signatures are legally binding. 

Established a year before ESIGN, UETA has been implemented by 49 states in the U.S. since 1999. It’s also been adopted in the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. New York is the only state that has not adopted UETA, which we’ll cover later.

Legal Protection

Similar to ESIGN, there are legal protections that come with UETA. Digital signatures are held as legal and binding, meaning documents cannot be denied simply because they were signed digitally.

Additionally, it mirrors ESIGN protections stating that a digital signature may legally be used if a signature is required by law. It also includes protections for digital records, not just the signatures themselves. That means a digital record would also satisfy the law under UETA if the law requires a written record.

A few documents are exempt from UETA, such as wedding, birth, or death certificates, as well as wills and other estate documents.

Electronic Signature Laws By State

Electronic signature laws are generally consistent across all states. However, some states have additional or alternate laws. Let’s look at what electronic signature laws apply to each state in the United States.

StateElectronic Signature Laws by StateE-Signature Legal?
ArizonaESIGNUETAAETA (Arizona Electronic Transactions Act)Yes
NevadaESIGNUETANETA (Nevada Electronic Transactions Act)Yes
New HampshireESIGNUETAYes
New YorkESIGNESRA (Electronic Signatures and Records Act)Yes
North CarolinaESIGNUETAYes
North DakotaESIGNUETAYes
Rhode IslandESIGNUETAYes
South CarolinaESIGNUETAYes
South DakotaESIGNUETAYes
West VirginiaESIGNUETAYes

New York State Electronic Signature Laws

The Electronic Signatures and Records Act (ERSA) in New York provides similar legal protections to digital signatures in the state. The act gives digital signatures the same legal authority as handwritten signatures. This act was passed in 2000 and excludes certain legal documents, such as those related to a person’s property upon death.

Start Using Legal E-Signatures With The Help Of Signaturely

Signaturely was designed with ease of use in mind. Setting up an account takes just minutes, creating or uploading your electronic signature is a breeze, and the platform allows for global collaboration and document sharing.

Now that you understand the various laws and regulations in the United States about digital signatures, you can see how valuable a platform like Signaturely can be. With every state having some form of digital signature protection, you no longer have to use physical, handwritten signatures and printed documents. Upload your document, click to sign, and send it along to others to have them sign right on the platform.

Not only are digital signatures just as legally valid as handwritten ones, but opting for an electronic signature can save your business time and money. With Signaturely’s software, you can avoid expensive printing costs and equipment and won’t need to pay for shipping to deliver your important documents.

Electronic Signature Laws FAQ

Here are some top FAQs and answers to help you understand electronic signature laws by state.

Are electronic signatures valid in all states?

Whether through a federal act or a state-level act, electronic signatures are generally valid in all states. The rule has some exceptions, such as the signed document type. In most states, documents related to property, birth, marriage, and death certificates can only be signed with a handwritten signature.

What is the difference between ESIGN and UETA?

The primary difference between ESIGN and UETA is the level at which the acts were created. ESIGN is a federal digital signature act, whereas UETA is a state-level act most states have adopted. Where federal law does not apply, which would include certain U.S. States and territories, ESIGN can’t be enforced. However, at the state or territory level, UETA can be enacted for digital signature protections.

Does the IRS allow electronic signatures?

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) does allow for electronic signatures on all IRS-related documents, including federal tax returns. Tax software will include proper signature validation when filing.

A Recap Of Electronic Signature Laws By State

Electronic signatures are legal in all 50 states in the United States. However, it’s important to understand which specific acts and regulations protect those signatures in each state. While most states have ESIGN and UETA protections, states like New York have opted for their own version. Digital signatures are legally binding and valid, and securely signing your documents with a platform like Signaturely has never been easier.

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